Medical Services

Latest Trends About Hair Transplant Surgery

There have been several changes in hair transplant surgery in recent years, and the latest trends show that female patients and eyebrow transplants are increasingly popular. The COVID-19 pandemic affected many hair restoration clinics, and the number of female patients has increased. Fortunately, there are now more options than ever to treat hair loss and regain self-esteem. The latest trends are outlined below. You can use this information to decide which hair transplant procedure is right for you or you can visit a hair transplant clinic Maryland.

Stem-cell hair transplants

A stem cell hair transplant is similar to a traditional one, except that instead of using follicles from the donor area, the surgeon will harvest stem cells from the patient’s scalp and replicate the strands in a laboratory. Once the follicles are repeated, they are implanted back into the scalp where hair loss has occurred. The procedure has a high success rate, and one Italian study even showed that 23 weeks after the last treatment, the patients’ hair density had increased by 29 percent!

Although the procedure is still experimental, it shows promise in treating various disorders. Earlier this year, the FDA warned about stem-cell hair transplants and advised patients to undergo procedures under a clinical investigational new drug application (IND).

Robotic FUE procedure

A robotic FUE hair transplant process has several advantages over the manual method. In manual FUE procedures, a physician must select a follicular unit, estimate its angle, and then carefully remove the follicle without damaging the surrounding tissue or causing a patch. Furthermore, a physician’s ability to accurately align the extraction tool and incise the skin can make the procedure risky. A robotic system eliminates this problem.

When a physician uses a robotic system, the robot will make incisions at specific locations on the scalp, which minimizes the risk of “shock loss.” A robotic FUE system will also detect the recipient site, make incisions beside it, and minimize the need for extra tissue. These features make the robotic hair transplant a more efficient procedure for patients. It also reduces costs since it does not require a doctor’s supervision.

Cost constraints

The cost of a hair transplant depends on the size of the area being treated and the texture of the patient’s hair. More minor patients typically require more grafts than larger ones, and the procedure cost will be higher in this case. Conversely, larger surgeries require more grafts than smaller ones, but the average cost per graft will be lower. The hair transplant cost calculator below shows examples of each of these factors.

As COVID-19 has affected the hair transplant industry to a greater extent than in any other country, cost-effective surgery is no longer as widely accessible. Some clinics have already conceded due to a lack of a level playing field. However, an increasingly educated patient population will demand a high standard of hygiene. Hence, a hair transplant procedure in a higher-end clinic will require an even higher price.

Post-surgery care

Following the transplant, you must take precautions to ensure a smooth recovery. You should avoid strenuous activity for the first few days, as it can increase blood flow to the scalp and cause bleeds. Moreover, your doctor may ask you to refrain from having sexual intercourse for ten days, as they want to ensure that the incisions are healing properly. Your physician may want to check your recovery several times in the first month, so you should consult a doctor.

Afterward, the scalp will be red and slightly swollen. You will also be prescribed pain medications. You will also be advised to keep your head elevated for the first three nights. You will also be given antibiotics and pain relievers. Your surgeon will also give you detailed written instructions regarding the use of these drugs. You will be able to return to work in two to five days. You must follow your surgeon’s instructions carefully since you may need to change your diet for a while.

Medical Services

What Are the Different Types of Home Health Care Services?

What are the different types of home health care agencies? They are companies or organizations that provide workers to patients’ homes for various tasks, such as getting around, cooking, and cleaning. Some states require home care agencies to be licensed and adhere to specific standards of care. Private-duty agencies offer nursing, homemaker, and companion services. Finally, staffing registries function as employment agencies for home health care professionals. In general, there are three main types of home health care agencies.

Home health aides

In general, a home health aide is a professional who provides personal care to a person in their own home. They perform tasks such as bathing and dressing the patient, administering medication, and assisting with personal hygiene. These professionals may also perform other activities based on the physician’s care plan. Some personal care aides do not perform health care tasks, however.

Nursing care covers general health care support and focuses on everyday activities, just like at-home care for elderly in Floral Park, NY. For example, a home health aide does not specialize in medical treatment but instead focuses on tasks that require daily living assistance, such as getting out of bed or walking. However, these professionals are essential for a patient’s health since they must not cause harm or cause any discomfort to the patient. In addition, they must follow strict guidelines and regulations, including meeting the patient’s needs and documenting their work.

Personal assistants

Personal assistants can be employed to provide a range of services, including personal care, wound care, and respite care. While personal assistants do not have any formal training or certifications, they can perform skilled tasks such as suctioning a tracheotomy, administering wound care, and checking vital signs. They are not paid through Medicaid but instead receive a salary through a contract fiscal intermediary. Because of this, personal assistants are an affordable way to provide quality care to those who need it.

A Consumer-Directed, Personal Assistance Program allows people with physical disabilities or chronic illnesses to hire an aide according to their needs and preferences. The program enables consumers to choose their preferred caregiver, including hiring a family member, friend, or neighbor. Although spouses and close friends are not permitted to serve as Personal Assistants, they can be hired under certain conditions. Unlike private agencies, consumers can work with a Personal Assistant they know and trust.


In the United States, nurses provide home health care to patients and their families in need. However, evidence of the effectiveness of home health care is still limited. Research on the point of home health care is also limited, with few controlled experiments. Many aspects of home health care are poorly understood, including the duration, cost, and services. Effective interventions to improve patient outcomes are needed, as are mechanisms to support nurses and families.

Healthcare is a recession-proof profession. The need for nurses will remain high as baby boomers age. This generation faces more medical problems and chronic conditions than younger people. This will increase the demand for home health nurses. In addition, there will be more need for home healthcare nurses in the future as more people become older. Therefore, nurses providing home health care services are an excellent choice for a career in the industry. However, the pay for this occupation is low.

Physical or occupational therapists

Physical and occupational therapists provide in-home health care services to individuals who need assistance with daily tasks. These professionals specialize in different fields and focus on helping patients with a range of disabilities and conditions perform activities of daily living. For example, physical therapists typically focus on balance and ambulation training, while speech therapists help patients improve their communication and fine motor skills. Both types of therapy can help improve quality of life and reduce anxiety.

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services have issued final regulations clarifying eligibility for occupational therapy services. The new law permits occupational therapists to provide “continuing needs assessment” after patients have completed other health care services. Although the act does not change eligibility criteria for home health care services, the AOTA believes that home health therapists should be allowed to provide in-home care services to eligible patients. The new rule will come into effect on January 1, 2022. While it does not affect eligibility for home health care, the new law does recognize the contributions of the therapy profession.

Hospice care

There are many different types of hospice care. Inpatient care is provided in an institution, usually a hospital or skilled nursing facility. A hospice agency may operate these care facilities that offer home health care or independent and stand-alone. Some patients need 24-hour nursing care while in the hospital, and inpatient care helps them live comfortably at home. In addition, some hospices offer respite care for family caregivers.

The care team consists of medical staff and trained home health aides. The team also includes a social worker, a spiritual advisor, and trained volunteers who meet with the patient twice a week. Furthermore, the team can also provide spiritual care and referrals to other support systems. Additionally, hospice providers offer equipment and supplies, such as a hospital bed, a wheelchair, oxygen, adult diapers, bandages, etc. Hospice providers may also provide respite care to family caregivers, relieving their stress and burnout.

Medical Services

Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) in Healthcare

Recognizing the Hierarchical condition category (HCC) is essential to ensure reimbursement for quality care. This article will provide an overview of HCC codes, what is HCC coding? understanding today’s risk adjustment model, the risk score, and how they impact documentation. This article also includes the benefits of utilizing decision support software for HCC coding. Ultimately, this information will help you optimize your organization’s EMR, data, analytics, and education. You will be better equipped to document your HCC-related diagnoses and receive appropriate compensation for high-quality care by following these steps.

Hierarchical condition category (HCC) coding

Hierarchical condition category (HCC) coding is a risk-adjustment coding system that identifies and categorizes a patient’s chronic conditions based on diagnostic criteria. Developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), this system has become more popular as healthcare shifts to value-based payment models. Each HCC represents one or more diagnoses of similar complexity and expected annual care costs.

HCC coding also aids healthcare companies in communicating patient complexity and presenting a complete picture of the patient’s health. It also assigns a Risk Adjustment Factor (RAF) score, which helps them measure healthcare resource consumption. Healthcare institutions can also use HCC coding to compute compensation based on their RAF scores. For example, a patient with few severe health conditions is expected to have an average medical cost. In contrast, a patient with multiple chronic diseases is expected to incur more health care costs.

Meaning of HCC codes

HCC coding aims to provide a pathway for payers and regulators, thereby improving patient care by allocating appropriate funds. Coders must review medical records to determine which diagnoses match HCC codes. They must also consider patients’ co-existing conditions when coding. For example, the patient with a missing limb must be recorded each year in a typical case. A simple checklist can help coders avoid pitfalls and maximize the specificity of their HCC codes.

As the ACA market reforms continue to make healthcare more affordable and accessible to all, HCC codes are crucial. These codes assist in calculating reimbursement for Medicare Advantage plans based on the health status of members. They are also a vital element of risk adjustment (RAF) scoring, determining the amount of payment a Medicare Advantage plan will receive for specific health care services. However, it’s not always obvious which HCC code to use. In addition, in some cases, physicians may need support to make a diagnosis, making HCC codes a necessary part of a physician’s decision-making process.

Meaning of risk score

CMS’s recent changes to the HCC scoring system have made it even more challenging to determine which patients are at the most significant risk of developing cancer. The risk score calculation is based on the severity of the condition and the patient’s overall health. CMS will only use the HCC with the highest risk score if a patient has multiple conditions. Many patients will likely receive several diagnoses in one calendar year, resulting in a high-risk score.

The risk score is calculated by taking into account all of the different risk factors correlated with cancer development. In 2015, the final study population included 1,098,252 members from 58 separate contracts with 24 MA organizations. Members of prescription drug plans are included in this number. The risk adjustment factor reflects the induced demand component driven by cost-sharing decreases. It is also reliant on the social and economic situations of the participants.

Importance of proper documentation for HCC coding

It’s essential for HCC coding in healthcare providers to document the entire patient encounter, including all medical notes. The meeting must occur during which the patient is evaluated, treated, and monitored. Most risk-adjusted HCCs are documented during outpatient office visits, whereas only a tiny percentage are recorded during inpatient encounters. If physicians can’t document the entire meeting, they miss out on valuable time and money.

To ensure that you don’t miss important details, you should document the patient’s BMI. However, it’s not always possible to assign an HCC code to a patient without documentation of morbid obesity. For example, documentation of a BMI of 40.5 does not result in an HCC code. So instead, you should document HCC 22 for morbid obesity, which carries a relative risk factor of 0.369 and an additional predicted cost of $3457.

Medical Services

Risks and Benefits of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection

This article will discuss the risks and benefits of Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), the procedure itself, nodular volume reduction, and cost. These risks are discussed before a patient decides to undergo PEI treatment. The risks of PEI are rare. The risks associated with this treatment include the risks of bleeding and infection. A doctor must supervise the procedure. The authors declare no financial or other conflicts of interest. These authors drafted the manuscript and revised it critically for important intellectual content.

Percutaneous ethanol injection

Physicians performed percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) on cancer patients in a phase II study as part of their standard chemotherapy. Patients were monitored during the procedure with gray-scale imaging. It used a 22-gauge needle to inject absolute ethanol into the tumor. Real-time ultrasound guidance and a 4.0-MHz sector probe were used to ensure a safe injection. Patients were sedated with fentanyl IV only if the ethanol was in the surface area.

This therapy has been associated with reduced recurrence of HCC. PEI is most effective when performed under ultrasound guidance because continuous monitoring helps to ensure that the ethanol leaks into the lesion. Patients are usually sedated. No hospitalization is required for PEI. A typical treatment schedule includes four to six sessions. The volume of ethanol injected per session varies with the size of the lesion. During the treatment, the patient must remain compliant.

Nodular volume reduction

Nodular volume reduction with PEI is an integral part of the overall outcome of the therapy. Patients were assessed at six months, 12 months, and 24 months. Volume reduction was calculated using a formula. At these intervals, patients were re-evaluated with clinical evaluation. Therapeutic success was defined as a 30% or more volume reduction, the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and complete esthetic satisfaction. The authors classified PEI as an effective treatment option for recurrent benign cystic lesions and nodules with an important fluid component. They noted that patients reported an improvement in esthetic concerns or symptoms following three sessions of PEI.

Fifty-two patients with benign mixed and solid TNs were treated during this trial. The ethanol dose was fixed at 30% of the nodular volume during each session. The patients returned for re-evaluation with the US one month after each session. Volume reduction of at least 30% and complete esthetic satisfaction were considered therapeutic successes. However, medical professionals did not recommend PEI for all patients. A patient must have nodular volume reduction before receiving PEI.


Despite its high success rate, the risks associated with PEI treatment are still worth considering, even in patients who do not meet the criteria for reoperation. Although the risk of complications is higher than with primary surgery, the results are still good, and patients are generally free from significant or chronic side effects. While the symptoms of PEI are similar to those of other gastrointestinal illnesses, these conditions are not always associated with each other. Depending on the underlying cause of PEI, a doctor may prescribe different treatments that will help your body absorb nutrients more efficiently. This can decrease the symptoms associated with PEI. The doctor may also order diagnostic tests to help determine the cause of PEI. Medical professionals will recommend PEI treatment once a physician has ruled out any other underlying illnesses. An example of this is PEI treatment Miami FL.


PEI is a relatively inexpensive method for thyroid nodules that do not require a hospital stay. PEI utilizes widely available US instruments and materials. An endocrinologist typically performs PEI as part of a regular exam. The procedure takes approximately 15 minutes to complete on cysts, 25 minutes to achieve on hyperfunctioning nodules, and 2.5 hours to perform on toxic nodules. However, the procedure does come with a cost.

The costs of PEI treatment were affordable and rapid. Generally, a PEI treatment only needs a few sessions. Depending on the extent of the disease, a PEI procedure can be done for as little as $1000 per treatment. The process was also fast, so the patient didn’t have to pay for multiple sessions. However, the cost for PEI was still significantly higher than the cost of a dog owner’s pet.

Medical Services

How to Get Medical Supplies at An Affordable Price

Medical supplies are not cheap, yet they are absolutely necessary. Finding affordable medical supplies is a huge task because these are tools used to save patients’ lives and ensure they stay healthy. So how do you ensure that you get quality medical supplies at an affordable price? Here are some ways to do that.

Do Your Research

There are many medical equipment suppliers all over. This gives you plenty of options to look at. Before you settle on one supplier, do your research. Whether you are looking for diagnostic instruments or wound care supplies, it is good to ensure that you have checked the prices of various suppliers and chosen someone affordable. Some medical supply sellers offer reasonable prices to loyal customers. If you have been getting your supplies from one person, you can try negotiating for a lower price.

Considering Buying Used Equipment

There are medical supplies that can still serve you even though they have been used before. Items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, and walkers are quite costly when bought new. If possible, find second-hand equipment that is in good condition and use it. However, ensure you are sourcing second-hand medical supplies from a trusted dealer who checks the functionality and comfort of equipment before selling it.

Talk to a Doctor

Most medical supply sellers often partner with doctors to provide tools and equipment that patients need. ABC Medical recommends asking for suggestions from doctors. They can direct you to suppliers to suppliers that offer quality devices at affordable prices. In addition to that, a doctor can also let you know which medical devices are insured. Insurance helps reduce your financial burden.

Medical supplies are what allow more people to recover from home instead of hospital beds. Their availability and affordability ensure that the healthcare system is not overwhelmed by too many patients in hospitals.

Medical Services

Signs Your Senior Loved One May Need Home Care Services

For some, it’s hard watching a senior loved one age and be unable to care for themselves. However, this happens to many people. As the child or relative of an aging loved one, it’s up to you to ensure they get the care needed.

If you are unable to provide this care yourself, it’s smart to look into elderly home care Brooklyn NY. Some of the signs it is time to start looking for a caregiver can be found here.

Personal Hygiene Problems

Have you noticed your senior loved one has body odor, bad breath, or no longer takes care of personal hygiene concerns? If so, it may be because they cannot do this alone. When you hire a caregiver, they will ensure the individual bathes, brushes their teeth, and takes care of other grooming tasks each day.

Stacks of Unpaid Bills and Other Mail

Are there stacks of unpaid bills and mail in the house? If so, your loved one may not be paying bills, which could lead to issues down the road. A caregiver will help to sort the mail to ensure that you can pay the bills on time and that no issues arise.

Spoiled Food

If there is rotten food in the kitchen, it may mean your loved one can’t get to the grocery store on their own or that they don’t know they need to go shopping. It may also mean they are eating rotten food or not eating anything. A caregiver will help with meal prep and ensure your loved one gets the nutrition they need to stay healthy.

Be sure to put time and effort into finding a caregiver who can provide your senior loved one the services they need. While this may take some time, it is worth it in the end and will give you peace of mind that your loved one is being cared for.

Medical Services

Is non-invasive body contouring method effective?

If you are fed up with your chubby midsection, sagging thighs, or other troublesome fat deposits…then non invasive body contouring may help you lose weight swiftly and safely.

It’s justified to wish to improve certain parts of your body. Getting in shape might be challenging if you have stubborn fat pockets. Losing a lot of weight may cause a lot of loose skin. After labor, your abdominal muscles may be slack. These are all excellent reasons to explore body contouring procedures.

Everything from fitness regimens to surgical techniques might be included as part of body shaping therapy, but there are a few things you must have to keep in mind. When it comes to body contouring, anyone considering surgery should know that it is still a fantastic choice, and there’s a good chance you’ll be a good candidate for a body shaping surgery. But if you genuinely don’t want surgery, you can prevent it.

What Is Non-invasive body contouring?

These types of contouring treatments don’t penetrate the skin to remove fat, which is why these methods are so popular. Temperatures applied to the skin’s surface are used to assist break down fat cells. It just takes a few minutes, and you may resume your daily routine.

Types of non-surgical body countering treatments:

Excess fat may be removed non-invasively in several ways, including:

·       Low-level laser therapy:

Cold laser energy is absorbed by fat cells, broken down and taken into the body by low-level laser treatment. FDA authorizes this entire operation.

·       Ultrasound treatment:

High-intensity, concentrated sound waves break fat cells, causing them to disintegrate over time using ultrasound. The FDA has authorized ultrasound treatment for the elimination of extra fat.

·       Radiofrequency treatment:

Using radiofrequency technology, heat is generated deep into fat cells, and the cells themselves are destroyed. Even though the FDA hasn’t given the go-ahead for radiofrequency fat removal for body sculpting, dermatologists routinely use it anyhow.

Top 3 methods of non-invasive body contouring:

Many methods exist to weaken and eliminate fat cells, but few successful treatments are discussed here. It’s vital to remember that these therapies don’t work instantly. During the weeks and months after your therapy, your body will progressively eliminate the damaged fat cells. The greatest noticeable improvements occur with healthy living practices. The finest outcomes come from a balanced diet and regular exercise.


This is one of the most groundbreaking non-surgical cosmetic treatments in recent memory. This eliminating fat from specific parts of the body is often preferred over surgical liposuction. CoolSculpting® can help people lose stubborn belly fat, thighs, back fat, love handles, and other areas without surgery or anaesthesia. Also, many patients can return to their usual activities immediately after the treatment.


FDA-approved injectables are used as non surgical cellulite treatment for the buttocks. The remedy is meant to break down cellulite dimpling fibrous bands. This treatment may help smooth down rough skin on the buttocks. The therapy is minimally invasive, fast, and involves little to no downtime.


This method is a new approach to a common skin issue: cellulite. For many years, finding effective non-surgical cellulite reduction treatments were difficult. Still, new developments in skin rejuvenation technology have allowed treatments like BTL Cellutone to successfully reduce the unmistakable “dimples” and skin depressions associated with cellulite. This therapy employs high-frequency vibrations to target deep-skin bands that cause cellulite, weakening them and making them seem smoother.


The BTL EXILIS ULTRA 360TM treatment system may be excellent for persons wishing to address loose, inelastic skin or preserve current firmness. This cutting-edge procedure uses ultrasound and radiofrequency waves to rejuvenate collagen, increase dermal elasticity, and tighten skin for a smoother, more youthful look. The BTL EXILIS ULTRA 360TM platform may also help eliminate fat pockets and improve body contouring>

Medical Services

3 Signs You Need to Go See a Chiropractor

A chiropractor is a medical practitioner who examines a patient and determines what course of action needs to be taken to treat any maladies of the neuromusculoskeletal system. They differ from massage therapists in that they need to acquire doctorate degrees. Although physical therapists also require post-graduate education, they don’t focus on the body as a whole as chiropractors do. It may be difficult to determine when you should visit a chiropractor’s office because you don’t want to take time off from work or school, so here are some justifications for doing so.


  1. You Have Endured Physical Trauma


Many of the first visits between a patient and his or her chiropractor Bowling Green involve a car crash or some kind of physical injury that might have resulted from playing sports or working on a construction site. This is one of the easiest decisions to make because there is a direct event to assign blame. It is important to seek the advice of a specialist even when you feel alright because there could be asymptomatic trouble happening internally.


  1. Pain is Strong and Chronic


Everyone experiences pain from time to time. If the soreness persists through a few doses of ibuprofen or acetaminophen over the course of a couple of days, you may have a reason to seek the help of an expert. This is especially true if the severity of the agony continues overnight while you are trying to sleep. Whether you live a sedentary or active lifestyle, you could be affected negatively.


  1. Other Symptoms Accompany Pain


A little discomfort in your shoulders or hips might not warrant any special treatment that you can’t wait out or manage from home. However, if you start to notice other manifestations of abnormalities, it may be time to schedule an appointment. If an ailment such as a fever sprouts up alongside any backaches, this could spell trouble. The same goes for headaches, bowel issues, tingling sensations or muscle weakness.


There is no need to suffer when help is available. Do yourself a favor and seek medical attention so that you can prevent life-threatening emergencies in the future.

Medical Services

Services All Primary Care Practices Should Provide

Patients expect certain services to be offered through a primary care provider. And, as a primary care provider, you are always looking to meet if not exceed your patients expectations. Read on for what services you need to provide to your patients to best care for them as their primary physician.


After Hours Care 


Your patient’s health concerns can happen at all hours of the day. When looking for a primary care provider one of the main things that patients will look for is how accessible the doctor is. As a primary care provider, you are the first person that patients will want to ask about any general health concerns. That’s why you need to offer a way to contact a trusted and knowledgeable healthcare professional outside of your business hours. You may want to consider investing in an after hours call service, so your patients calls are answered even when your staff is not in the office. Patients will also appreciate it if you offer some evening or weekend hours to make it easier for them to schedule appointments.


Free Online Resources 


The internet is often the first place people will go with any of their medical questions. Having medical information on your website will draw more people to it and potentially turn some of them into patients. Having medical resources on your website is also great for current patients to have a trusted source to look for answers to health related questions. That last thing you want as their provider is for your patients to go online looking for medical advice only to get it from an unreliable source and having them worsen the problem. Your website should be the first place your patients look whenever they have a medical question or concern. For patients to be able to find information on your website, your medical library should be easy to navigate. You may want to consider hiring someone who is an expert in medical practice website design to redesign your website. This can also help patients easier locate your office information and schedule appointments.


Well Visits & Physicals 


Wellness visits and physicals are the center of your practice. They allow you to do any preventative checks and tests on your patients as well as give them time to ask you any questions. Patients often have health questions that seem too small to them to schedule an appointment for so wellness visits are a great time for them to ask them. Make sure to schedule enough time for each patient so they don’t feel rushed and you have time to address any of their concerns.




These days, more and more doctors are offering telehealth visits as an option for their patients. Telehealth visits are a great option for families that can not always make it into your office for every appointment. This can save your patients on gas money, having to take more time off work, and childcare. Although not all of your appointments can be scheduled virtually, this can be a great option for the ones that can be. This also cuts down on the amount of people in your office at one time and can reduce the spread of certain illnesses.


Above are the basic services you need to provide to your patients as a primary care office. You may add more depending on your specialties or what your patients need. Be sure to ask for feedback from your patients about if they feel they would like you as their provider to offer any other services. Keeping up with your patients expectations will have them keep entrusting you with their health for years to come.

Medical Services

Insight Into Infertility

Different couples face different challenges. While some are able to become pregnant and to have children without any problems, others struggle. Among couples in the United States, as many as 10% to 15% are infertile and may need to seek infertility treatments Dallas TX. Problems with either partner may prevent pregnancy, or a combination of issues can result in infertility.


What Is Infertility?


For most couples, infertility means being unable to become pregnant despite engaging in frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year. In addition to the obvious, main symptom of not becoming pregnant, other symptoms of infertility exist. In the case of women, periods may be irregular or absent, and in the case of men, hormonal problems that manifest themselves as changes in sexual function or hair growth may be indicative of infertility.


What Are Some Risk Factors?


Females and males share many of the risk factors for infertility. Some factors include age, since fertility generally declines with age, and weight, since being overweight or underweight can contribute to infertility. In addition, those who do not exercise regularly are at greater risk of becoming obese, and obesity puts individuals at a greater risk of infertility. Finally, alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with fertility issues; heavy drinking is particularly problematic, and smoking can make pregnancy less likely and can decrease the effectiveness of treatments for fertility.


How Is Treatment Determined?


Various factors are considered when determining the appropriate treatment for fertility. How long the individuals have been infertile and what is responsible for the infertility are taken into account. The age of each person and any personal preferences also play a role in the determination.


In some instances, the problems leading to infertility cannot be resolved, and spontaneous pregnancy is not expected. Assisted reproductive technology can be used in such cases to allow a couple to achieve a successful pregnancy. It is important to understand that treatment for infertility might involve significant investments of time and finances plus physical and psychological commitments. Finding specialists with whom both partners feel comfortable can improve the process.