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Risks and Benefits of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection

This article will discuss the risks and benefits of Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), the procedure itself, nodular volume reduction, and cost. These risks are discussed before a patient decides to undergo PEI treatment. The risks of PEI are rare. The risks associated with this treatment include the risks of bleeding and infection. A doctor must supervise the procedure. The authors declare no financial or other conflicts of interest. These authors drafted the manuscript and revised it critically for important intellectual content.

Percutaneous ethanol injection

Physicians performed percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) on cancer patients in a phase II study as part of their standard chemotherapy. Patients were monitored during the procedure with gray-scale imaging. It used a 22-gauge needle to inject absolute ethanol into the tumor. Real-time ultrasound guidance and a 4.0-MHz sector probe were used to ensure a safe injection. Patients were sedated with fentanyl IV only if the ethanol was in the surface area.

This therapy has been associated with reduced recurrence of HCC. PEI is most effective when performed under ultrasound guidance because continuous monitoring helps to ensure that the ethanol leaks into the lesion. Patients are usually sedated. No hospitalization is required for PEI. A typical treatment schedule includes four to six sessions. The volume of ethanol injected per session varies with the size of the lesion. During the treatment, the patient must remain compliant.

Nodular volume reduction

Nodular volume reduction with PEI is an integral part of the overall outcome of the therapy. Patients were assessed at six months, 12 months, and 24 months. Volume reduction was calculated using a formula. At these intervals, patients were re-evaluated with clinical evaluation. Therapeutic success was defined as a 30% or more volume reduction, the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and complete esthetic satisfaction. The authors classified PEI as an effective treatment option for recurrent benign cystic lesions and nodules with an important fluid component. They noted that patients reported an improvement in esthetic concerns or symptoms following three sessions of PEI.

Fifty-two patients with benign mixed and solid TNs were treated during this trial. The ethanol dose was fixed at 30% of the nodular volume during each session. The patients returned for re-evaluation with the US one month after each session. Volume reduction of at least 30% and complete esthetic satisfaction were considered therapeutic successes. However, medical professionals did not recommend PEI for all patients. A patient must have nodular volume reduction before receiving PEI.


Despite its high success rate, the risks associated with PEI treatment are still worth considering, even in patients who do not meet the criteria for reoperation. Although the risk of complications is higher than with primary surgery, the results are still good, and patients are generally free from significant or chronic side effects. While the symptoms of PEI are similar to those of other gastrointestinal illnesses, these conditions are not always associated with each other. Depending on the underlying cause of PEI, a doctor may prescribe different treatments that will help your body absorb nutrients more efficiently. This can decrease the symptoms associated with PEI. The doctor may also order diagnostic tests to help determine the cause of PEI. Medical professionals will recommend PEI treatment once a physician has ruled out any other underlying illnesses. An example of this is PEI treatment Miami FL.


PEI is a relatively inexpensive method for thyroid nodules that do not require a hospital stay. PEI utilizes widely available US instruments and materials. An endocrinologist typically performs PEI as part of a regular exam. The procedure takes approximately 15 minutes to complete on cysts, 25 minutes to achieve on hyperfunctioning nodules, and 2.5 hours to perform on toxic nodules. However, the procedure does come with a cost.

The costs of PEI treatment were affordable and rapid. Generally, a PEI treatment only needs a few sessions. Depending on the extent of the disease, a PEI procedure can be done for as little as $1000 per treatment. The process was also fast, so the patient didn’t have to pay for multiple sessions. However, the cost for PEI was still significantly higher than the cost of a dog owner’s pet.